The Enlightenment

Concurrent Dates

1175-1783 The American Revolutionary War
1776 The American Declaration of Independence
1789-1799 The French Revolution
1839 First “Camera”
1861-1865 The American Civil War

Target Concepts

  • The art world is divided in to two, between those who see art as rooted in logic (Neoclassical), and those who believe art should be rooted in our passions (Romantic)
  • Neoclassical art was the art of both the establishment and the revolutionaries
  • Photography both challenged and supported the traditional arts
  • Artistic styles and movements grow increasingly diverse

The Enlightenment
John Locke

A Time of Revolution

Industrial Revolution

The Impact on the Arts

Naturalness

Breakfast Scene, William Hogarth
From Marriage A’La Mode
England, 18th century CE oil on canvas 2’x3’

Portrait of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, Miguel Cabrera
New Spain (Mexico), 18th century CE oil on canvas

A Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrery, Joseph Wright of Derby
England 18th century CE oil on canvas

Self-Portrait, Elisabeth Louise Vigee Le Brun
France, 18th century CE oil on canvas

Neoclassicism

Monticello, Thomas Jefferson
USA, 18th century CE

Oath of the Horatii, Jacques-Louis David
France, 18th century CE oil on canvas 11’x14′
Rome vs. Alba, Horatius vs. Curatius

George Washington, Jean-Antoine Houdon
USA, 18th century CE marble

Pauline Borghese as Venus, Antonio Canova
Italy, 19th century CE marble 6’ long

Grande Odalisque, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
France, 19th century CE oil on canvas 3’x5’

Romanticism

The Third of May 1808, Francisco Goya
Spain, 19th century CE oil on canvas 9’x11’

And There’s Nothing to be Done, Francisco Goya
Spain, 19th century CE drypoint 9”x6”

Liberty Leading the People, Eugene Delacroix
France, 19th century CE oil on canvas 9’x11’

Raft of the Medusa, Theodore Gericault
France, 19th century CE oil on canvas 16’x23’

Death of Sardanapalus, Eugene Delacroix
France, 19th century CE oil on canvas 12’x16’

Romantic Landscape

The Oxbow, Thomas Cole
USA, 19th century CE oil on canvas 4’x6’
The Hudson River School, Expansionism, Rugged Individualism

The Slave Ship, Joseph Turner
England, 19th century CE oil on canvas 3’x4’

Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, Albert Bierstadt
USA, 19th century CE oil on canvas 6’x10’
Transcendentalism

Photography

Still Life in Studio, Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre
France, 19th century CE photograph

Draped Model, Eugene Durieu and Eugene Delacroix
France, 19th century CE albumen print

A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 1863, Timothy O’Sullivan
USA, 19th century CE albumen print

Horse Galloping, Eadward Muybridge
USA, 19th century CE collotype print
Zoopraxiscope

Nadar Raising Photography to the Height of Art, Honore Daumier
France, 19th century CE lithograph