Late 19th Century

“Realistic, illusionist art has dissembled the medium, using art to conceal art. Modernism used art to call attention to art.” – Clement Greenburg, 20th c art critic

1859 Darwin’s Origin of Species
1861-1865 The American Civil War
1891 First movie camera
1892 Henry Ford invents the automobile

The “Second” Industrial Revolution

Darwinism

Modernity, Modern Art, and Modernism
Avant Garde

Japanisme

Realism
Chapter 30

“ . . . Show me an angel, and I’ll paint one.” -Courbet

The Stone Breakers, Gustave Courbet +
France, 1849 CE oil on canvas 5’x9’

The Gleaners, Jean-Francois Millet
France, 1857 CE oil on canvas 3’x4’
Barbizon school

Le Dejeuner sur l’Herbe, Edouard Manet
France, 1863 CE oil on canvas 7’x9’

Olympia, Edouard Manet +
France, 1863 CE oil on canvas 4’x6’

Academic Art
Chapter 31

Nymphs and a Satyr, Adolphe-William Bougereau
France, 1873 CE oil on canvas 9’ high

Impressionism
Chapter 31

Impression: Sunrise, Claude Monet
France, 1872 CE oil on canvas 2’x2’
Plein air

Gare St.-Lazare, Claude Monet +
France, 1877 CE oil on canvas 2’x3’

Moulin de la Galette, Pierre-Auguste Renoir
France, 1876 CE oil on canvas 5’x6’

On the Europe Bridge, Gustave Caillebotte
France, 1877 CE oil on canvas 41” x 51”

Dancers at the Bar, Edgar Degas
France, 1877 oil on canvas 2’x3’

Bar at the Folies-Bergere, Edouard Manet
France, 1882 CE oil on canvas 3’x4’

The Coiffure, Mary Cassatt +
France, 1891 CE drypoint and aquatint on laid paper

Post Impressionists
Chapter 31

Sunday Afternoon at La Grande Jatte, Georges Seurat
France, 1884 CE oil on canvas 7’x10’
Pointillism

Night Café, Vincent Van Gogh
France, 1888 CE oil on canvas
Local color, symbolic color, subjective color

Starry Night, Vincent Van Gogh +
France, 1889 CE oil on canvas 2’x3’
Broken color, impasto

Vision After the Sermon, Paul Gauguin
France, 1888 CE oil on canvas 2’x3’

Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?, Paul Gauguin +
France, 1898 CE oil on canvas 2’x3’

At the Moulin Rouge, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
France, 1892 CE oil on canvas 4’x5’

Mt. Ste. Victoire, Paul Cézanne +
France, 1902 CE oil on canvas 2’x3’

…and Everything Else
Chapter 31

Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament (multiple views)), Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin +
England, 1870 CE limestone, masonry, and glass

The Valley of Mexico from the Hillside of Santa Isabel, Jose Maria Velasco +
Mexico, 1882 CE oil on canvas

Burghers of Calais, Auguste Rodin
France, 1884 CE bronze 8’x7’x11”

Eiffel Tower, Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel
France, 1889 CE wrought iron 984’ high
The Paris Exposition of 1889

The Scream, Edvard Munch +
France, 1893 CE oil, pastel, and casein on cardboard 11”x29”
Symbolism

The Kiss, Gustav Klimt +
Austria, 20thc o/c 6’x6’
Fin-De-Siecle

Carson, Pirie, and Scott Building (exterior and plan), Louis Sullivan +
USA, 1903 CE iron, steel, glass, and terra cotta
Tensile strength, curtain walls

Casa Mila, Antonio Gaudi
Spain, 1907 CE
Arts and Crafts Movement, Art Nouveau

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