The Indigenous Americas

Concurrent Dates

753 BCE The Founding of Rome
600 BCE Mayan civilization begins in Mexico
325 CE Council of Nicea
476 CE Western Rome falls
632 CE Death of Mohammed
1492 CE Columbus sails, expulsion of the Jews from Spain, Inquisition in high gear
1510’s CE Montezuma, Aztec ruler, receives Cortes and the Spanish Conquistadors

Copernicus tells us that the earth revolves around the sun

American East coast is discovered up to Charleston

Before Columbus

South America

Chavin de Huantar
Peru, Chavin culture, 10th-3rd century BCE stone, granite

  • Lanzon Stela
  • Nose Ornament

The City of Cusco
Peru, Inka 15th century CE sandstone

  • Qorinkancha
  • Saqsa Waman
  • Silver and gold maize cobs

The City of Machu Piccu
Peru, Inka 16th century CE

  • Observatory
  • Intihuatana Stone

All-T’oqapu tunic
Inka 16th century CE camelid fiber and cotton

Mesoamerica
Ceremonial ax in the form of a jaguar-human
Mexico, Olmec, 10th century BCE jadeite 1’ high

Yaxchilan
Mexico, Maya, 8th century CE limestone

  • Structures 40 and 33
  • Lintel 24 (Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc)
  • Lintel 25

Templo Mayor
Mexico (modern day Mexico City), Aztec 14th century CE stone
Chac-Mool

  • The Coyolxauhqui Stone (volcanic stone)
  • Olmec-style mask (jadeite)
  • Calendar Stone (basalt)

Xipe Totec Impersonator
Aztec, 15th century CE terra cotta

Ruler’s feather headdress (probably of Motecuhuzoma II)
Mexico, Aztec 16th century CE feathers and gold

North America

Mesa Verde cliff dwellings
Colorado, Anasazi culture, 5th century-14th century CE sandstone

  • Cliff Palace
  • Kiva

Great Serpent Mound
Ohio, Mississippian 11th century CE earthwork effigy mound

Bandolier bag
USA, Lenape tribe, 19th century CE beadwork on leather

Transformation mask (exterior and interior)
Canada, Kwatiutl, wood, paint, and strings

Hide painting of Sun Dance, Cotsiogo
Wyoming, Shoshone tribe?, 20th century CE painted elk hide

Black-on-black ceramic vessel, Maria Martinez and Julian Martinez
USA, San Ildefonso Pueblo 20th century CE blackware ceramic