Concurrent Dates

1492 CE Columbus sails, expulsion of the Jews from Spain, Inquisition in high gear
1510’s CE Montezuma, Aztec ruler, receives Cortes and the Spanish Conquistadors
Copernicus tells us that the earth revolves around the sun
American East coast is discovered up to Charleston
1517 CE The Protest Reformation begins with Martin Luther and his 95 Thesis

Target Concepts

  • Innovations like perspective and oil paint lead to more realistic artwork
  • Increasingly artists are being allowed to express themselves, while patrons begin to have less influence on the appearance of art
  • As artists gain more freedom to pursue their interests, we see the subject matter of art becoming broader and more inclusive
  • Giotto creates the rules for European art, and all later artists pick up where he left off
  • Humanism returns and is an important influence on European culture

Italian City States

Artists and the Princely Courts

The Medici

The Return of Humanism

The Rise of Creativity

Scientific Art

Florence Cathedral, Arnolfo Di Cambio and others
Italy, 13th century CE 502’ long x 124’ wide x 375’ tall
Arena Chapel, Giotto
Italy, 14th century CE

  • Lamentation

Sacrifice of Isaac, Filippo Brunelleschi
Italy, 15th century CE gilded bronze relief 2’ x 1’

Sacrifice of Isaac, Lorenzo Ghiberti
Italy, 15th century CE gilded bronze relief 2’ x 1’

Dome of the Florence Cathedral, Filippo Brunelleschi
Italy, 15th century CE

The Joy of Painting (in oil)
Support, under-painting, grisaille, varnish

Merode Altarpiece, Master of Flemalle
Flanders, 15th century CE oil on wood central panel is 2’x2’
approximate perspective, orthogonal

Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, Jan Van Eyck
Flanders, 15th century CE 0il on wood 2’ x 1’

David, Donatello
Italy, 15th century CE bronze 5’ high

David, Andrea Del Verrocchio
Italy, 15th century CE bronze 4’

Santa Maria Novela, Leon Battista Alberti
Italy, 15th century CE

Palazzo Rucellai, Leon Battista Alberti
Italy, 15th century CE

Madonna and Child with Angels, Fra Filippo Lippi
Italy, 15th century CE tempera on wood 3’ x 2’

Pazzi Chapel, Bascilica de Santa Croce, Brunelleschi
Italy, 15th century

Birth of Venus, Sandro Botticelli
Italy, 15th century CE tempera on canvas 6’ x 9’

Last Supper, Leonardo Da Vinci
Italy, 15th century CE fresco secco (in oil and tempera) 30’ x 14’
Sfumato, chiaroscuro, linear perspective

Mona Lisa, Leonardo Da Vinci
Italy, 16th century CE oil on wood 3’ x 2’

School of Athens, Raphael
Italy, Vatican Palace, 16th century CE buon fresco 19’x 27’

Galatea, Raphael
Italy, 16th century CE 10’x 7’

David, Michelangelo Buonarroti
Italy, 16th century CE marble 14’ tall

Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Michelangelo Buonarroti
Italy, Vatican, 16th century CE buon fresco 128’ x 45’
Sibyl, ignudi

  • Creation of Adam

Last Judgment, Michelangelo Buonarroti
From the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel
Italy, Vatican, 16th century CE buon fresco 48’ x 44’

Venus of Urbino, Titian
Italy, 16th century oil on canvas 4’x6’

Entombment of Christ, Pontormo
Italy, 16th century CE oil on wood 10’x7’
Figura serpentinata

  • Arena Chapel
  • Lamentation
  • Sacrifice of Isaac, Bruneelleschi
  • Sacrifice of Isaac, Ghiberti
  • Merode Altarpiece
  • Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride
  • David, Donatello
  • David, del Verrocchio
  • Palazzo Rucellai
  • Madonna and Child with Two Angels
  • Pazzi Chapel
  • Pazzi Chapel interior
  • Birth of Venus
  • Last Supper
  • Mona Lisa
  • School of Athens
  • Galatea
  • David, Michelangelo
  • Sistine Chapel ceiling
  • Sistine Chapel ceiling diagram
  • Creation of Adam
  • Last Judgment, Michelangelo
  • Venus of Urbino
  • Entombment of Christ
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